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FTM Phalloplasty Surgery Procedures

The development of procedures for phalloplasty has followed those of general reconstructive surgery. Bogoras first reported a total penile reconstruction using a tubularized pedicled abdominal flap in 1936. Several different procedures with local flaps followed. In the 1980s, the introduction of microvascular free flaps transfer started a new era of reconstructive surgery which had a great impact on phalloplasty. Free flap phalloplasty is now the more common approach, though some surgeons and patients still prefer local flap techniques.

Pedicled Flap PhalloplastyPedicled Flap Phalloplasty

Kim FTM Phalloplasty
Pedicled groin flaps

Abdominal Phalloplasty
Supra-pubic pedicled abdominal flap

Bird-Wing Abdominal Phalloplasty
Stanford bipedicled infra-umbilical skin flap

ALT Pedicled Flap
Pedicled thigh flap


  • Bogoras’ bipedicled abdominal tubed flap
  • Maltz-Gillies’ tube-within-a-tube bipedicled flap
  • Single pedicled infra-umbilical flap
  • Single subcutaneous pedicled infra-umbilical flap

Free Flap PhalloplastyFree Flap Phalloplasty

RFF Phalloplasty
Radial forearm free flap

MLD Phalloplasty
Musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap (back/torso)

Re-innervated Latissimus Dorsi Free Flap
Variant of MLD phalloplasty

ALT Phalloplasty
Anterolateral thigh flap

FFF Phalloplasty
Fibula free flap (lower leg)

ITFL Phalloplasty
Island tensor fasciae latae free flap (thigh)



  • Bogoras, N. Uber die volle plastische Wiederherstellung eines zum Koitus fahigen Penis (Peniplastica totalis). Zentralbl. Chir., 1936, 22: p. 1271 - 6.
  • Ranno, R. Phalloplasty [pdf]